ASDA Personal Score Leaflet References

Here you'll find the references for the 'What your personal score means for you' leaflet designed to help you evaluate your risk level.

November 2018







Reynolds, K., Lewis, B., Nolen, J.D.L., Kinney, G.L., Sathya, B. and He, J. (2003). Alcohol consumption and risk of stroke: a meta-analysis. JAMA, 289(5), 579-588.



Roehrs, T. and Roth, T. (2001). Sleep, sleepiness, and alcohol use. Alcohol Research and Health, 25(2), 101-109.


Low mood

Bellos, S., Skapinakis, P., Rai, D., Zitko, P., Araya, R., Lewis, G., Lionis, C. and Mavreas, V. (2013). Cross-cultural patterns of the association between varying levels of alcohol consumption and the common mental disorders of depression and anxiety: Secondary analysis of the WHO Collaborative Study on Psychological Problems in General Health Care. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 133(3), 825-831.


Cancer risk

Bagnardi, V., Rota, M., Botteri, E., Tramacere, I., Islami, F., Fedirko, V., Scotti, L., Jenab, M., Turati, F., Pasquali, E. and Pelucchi, C. (2015). Alcohol consumption and site-specific cancer risk: a comprehensive dose–response meta-analysis. British Journal of Cancer, 112(3), 580-593.


Heart disease

Roerecke, M. and Rehm, J. (2010). Irregular heavy drinking occasions and risk of ischemic heart disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. American Journal of Epidemiology, 171(6), 633-644.


High blood pressure

Xin, X., He, J., Frontini, M.G., Ogden, L.G., Motsamai, O.I. and Whelton, P.K. (2001). Effects of alcohol reduction on blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Hypertension, 38(5), 1112-1117.



Traversy, G. and Chaput, J.P. (2015). Alcohol consumption and obesity: an update. Current Obesity Reports, 4(1), 122-130.


Liver cirrhosis

Savolainen, V.T., Liesto, K., Männikkö, A., Penttilä, A. and Karhunen, P.J. (1993). Alcohol consumption and alcoholic liver disease: evidence of a threshold level of effects of ethanol. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 17(5), 1112-1117.


Sexual dysfunction

Peugh, J. and Belenko, S. (2001). Alcohol, drugs and sexual function: a review. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 33(3), 223-232.



Aicken, C.R., Nardone, A. and Mercer, C.H. (2010). Alcohol misuse, sexual risk behaviour and adverse sexual health outcomes: evidence from Britain's national probability sexual behaviour surveys. Journal of Public Health, 33(2), 262-271.


Drinking guidelines

Department of Health. (2016). UK Chief Medical Officers’ Low Risk Drinking Guidelines. DOH. [Online] Available at:

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